Sexual differentiation affects cancer risk and survival at all ages

Epigenetics   By what mechanisms and at what stages during development  do sex chromosomes and sex hormones pattern chromatin and gene expression, and establish sex-specific risk for glioblastoma and sensitivity to therapy?

Signaling   By what mechanisms are sex-specific activity in the PI3 kinase and p53 pathways determined and what are the consequences for tumorigenesis and treatment response?

Metabolism   What are the mechanisms and consequences of sex differences in metabolism on growth, sensitivity/resistance to treatment?

Senescence   What role do sex differences in cellular and tissue senescence play in the divergence in cancer rates that occur between males and females later in life?

Preclinical studies   Can sex-specific approaches to treatment improve outcomes?